Martin Disler. La natura è sempre piena di vita, e di violenza

di Laura Luppi


Con queste parole Martin Disler riassume l’essenza del suo pensiero artistico durante un’intervista di Demetrio Paparoni nel 1994. Motivando la scelta del suo isolamento dal mondo globalizzato, snaturato e disinteressato per ritrovare a Les Planchettes un contatto concreto e al contempo spirituale con il mistero della vita, con la semplicità di una quotidianità «selvaggia» ancora distante dalle barbarie della modernità, Disler ripercorre le orme dei grandi pensatori, scrittori e intellettuali che nella generosa e altrettanto crudele Natura riscoprirono la propria appartenenza al cosmo primordiale.
Il ciclo della nascita che si alterna alla tragicità della morte assume un retrogusto amaro dinnanzi alla certezza dell’annientamento dell’uno in favore della totalità, di quell’unità che contiene e riassume in sé le forze dell’individualità. Una certa sensibilità, ormai rara o da taluni ritenuta sorpassata da una visione scientifico-progressiva della storia, riavvicina l’artista svizzero alla spontaneità dell’uomo primitivo, la cui archetipica arte riacquista fascino agli occhi dei moderni. Se già grandi maestri del passato come Picasso e Gauguin recuperarono quel nostalgico senso di «primitivismo», questo avvenne in funzione del desiderio di purificazione dalla superficialità di una società che, nella corsa all’industrializzazione e ai benefici del comfort, aveva ormai rinunciato a trovare risposta ai quesiti metafisici dell’uomo. La volontà di cogliere il senso dell’altrove, le radici dell’umanità, quell’arcaico stimolo a mantenere in relazione il mondo interiore e quello esteriore è ciò che ha mosso l’interesse verso forme pre-civili che, nelle tele di Disler, riflettono un modo di osservare e interpretare la realtà attraverso la fermezza di un tratto a volte morbido, a volte violento.
Dalla serie di carte degli anni ’70, in cui la manualità viene semplificata attraverso linee che stilizzano una forma, Martin Disler giunge all’espressione di un erotismo selvaggio che trasuda da corpi deformi, destrutturati, ma non privi di carnalità. Il filosofo francese Merleau-Ponty, che insisteva sulla complementarietà del corpo proprio e di quello altrui, del loro legame imprescindibile attraverso il territorio comune dell’esperienza percettiva, così descriveva i traguardi comunicativi raggiunti dall’arte: “...gli oggetti della pittura moderna «sanguinano», spargono sotto i nostri occhi la loro sostanza interrogando direttamente il nostro sguardo, mettendo alla prova il patto di coesistenza che abbiamo concluso con il mondo attraverso tutto il nostro corpo”.


Negli acrilici degli anni ’90, Disler recupera la semplicità di un segno che libera lo spazio dalla confusione orgiastica delle tele, per dar ampio respiro sulla carta a linee essenziali che disegnano corpi stilizzati, nudi e scarni, immersi in ostili ambientazioni urbane e domestiche. La compresenza della freudiana pulsione alla vita e alla morte in scene di rapporti sia etero che omosessuali genera nell’osservatore un senso di inquietudine e di mistico turbamento, tipico nella ritualità di arcaiche tribù che nei sacrifici cruenti e nei riti iniziatici, dalle esplicite componenti sessuali, rivivevano e reincarnavano l’antico mistero cosmogonico. Una sessualità legata alla maternità, a grembi fertili che custodiscono il seme della vita, rinuncia ad ogni volgarità, contribuendo a sradicare il tabù del desiderio più istintivo dell’uomo, quello che più di ogni altro lo assimila all’animale selvaggio: non solo il piacere funzionale alla procreazione e dunque alla conservazione della specie, ma anche il raggiungimento del piacere fine a se stesso.


Questo dualismo della carne, intesa sia come materia soggetta alla decomposizione del tempo, sia come forza evocativa di una sensualità aggressiva, riflette un aspetto predominante anche nelle ricerche artistiche di Francis Bacon. Lo stesso Disler aveva riconosciuto una certa affinità per un universo comunicativo complesso ed evocativo, per una similare percezione del dolore in perpetua relazione alla gioia dell’affermazione e per un senso di estraneità da una coscienza collettiva che ha perduto la memoria storica delle sue origini. L’esigenza di un ripristino della soggettività per fuggire dall’anonimato preponderante di una «normalità» che sacrifica le peculiarità del singolo in favore dell’omologazione dei più, trova un’ulteriore conferma nelle parole di Milan Kundera sul valore artistico di Bacon, note che riecheggiano l’intenzione sovversiva di Disler: “lo sguardo del pittore si posa sul volto come una mano brutale, cercando di impadronirsi della sua essenza” anche se “vive in un’epoca in cui l’«io» fatalmente si sottrae”.

Volti disegnati, appena accennati, sfigurati e scolpiti, come il bronzo del 1989, sono gli stessi volti attraverso cui artisti come Ensor, Munch, Vlaminck e Kirchner hanno denunciato la disperazione dell’uomo che perde ogni giorno la propria identità dietro le maschere che la società moderna barbaramente impone. La sensazione di disagio, di non appartenenza e primariamente di impotenza sono il punto di partenza per un percorso che applica all’esigenza di ribellione un sottile velo di malinconico abbandono. La gestualità istintiva e irrompente di Disler, che ritrova le sue radici in artisti come Jackson Pollock, si lega però ad un’atmosfera triste e irrequieta, suggerita da tonalità fredde interrotte da improvvisi colori caldi, dal rosso della “passione carnale” o della “Passione sacrificale”, più vicina ai maestri del primo Novecento austriaco e tedesco. Gli immateriali danzatori, come gli amanti sperduti di Kokoschka, si stringono in un nostalgico abbraccio reso impalpabile da marcate pennellate materiche, che ne sanciscono la forma. L’irruenza di un espressionismo carico di tensioni nevralgiche alternate ad affermanti grida di negazione, non ancora selvagge e non del tutto inconsce, ricorda l’intenzione di Kokoschka, secondo cui dipingere significava “accendere un fuoco”, forse quello stesso fuoco che Martin Disler amava chiamare “fermento di creazione”.


Fino al 5 gennaio 2013
Galleria Opere Scelte
via Matteo Pescatore 11/d, Torino
www.operescelte.com

12 commenti:

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